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  • 03 typology bank john soane england gandy architectural review

    Typology: BankSubscription

    18 September, 2019 By Tom Wilkinson

    Beginning with the simple table from which they take their name, banks developed into one of the most splendid urban building types as they sought to reassure depositors. Today they are on the verge of disappearing altogether

  • Caesars web

    Typology: PalaceSubscription

    8 August, 2019 By Tom Wilkinson

    Big houses for feudal rulers advertised the right to power of those within, while protecting them from the people they exploited to build them – today, the tradition continues in the hands of oligarchs

  • Dmk6f9

    Typology: PierSubscription

    15 April, 2019 By Catherine Slessor

    Devised by pleasure-seeking Victorians but now undermined by social change and physical neglect, does the building that defined the seaside have a future?

  • Br7nb9

    Typology: Power stationSubscription

    27 February, 2019 By Tom Wilkinson

    Faced with planetary catastrophe, does the future of energy generation lie in a return to its historical origins?

  • John schofield the last of the billingsgate fish porters london 2012 claudia leisinger

    Typology: Market hallSubscription

    31 October, 2018 By Tom Wilkinson

    The market hall shelters a cornucopia of delights, but the traffic and mess it generates presents a challenge to planners

  • Pa 4385731

    Typology: Law CourtSubscription

    14 September, 2018 By Tom Wilkinson

    From Kafkaesque labyrinths of columns and arches to the abstraction of Modernist towers: the representation of justice in a world ruled by its absence is an intractable task 

  • Screen shot 2018 05 23 at 12.31.51

    Typology: PrisonSubscription

    11 June, 2018 By Tom Wilkinson

    To confine, secure, rehabilitate or punish: the prison has several, sometimes contradictory aims, but however humane its approach, penal architecture is essentially cruel

  • 17424591259 1623442fbf o

    Typology: Buildings for animalsSubscription

    16 April, 2018 By Tom Wilkinson

    Designing buildings for animals has prompted an extraordinary range of responses, from palace to cat flap, which say more about humans than the residents

  • Lon35766

    Typology: BathhouseSubscription

    13 February, 2018 By Tom Wilkinson

    Since time immemorial, and from continent to continent, saunas or bathhouses have played a community role, stripping their users of social distinctions and affording a rich seam for architects

  • Hull

    Typology: Public toiletSubscription

    29 November, 2017 By Tom Wilkinson

    From the pissoir to the sanisette, from the communal to the stand-alone pod, from male to female provision, a rich seam of history runs through toilets

  • Gettyimages 50335646

    Typology: ShopSubscription

    13 September, 2017 By Tom Wilkinson

    Sacred lair of the commodity, its mysteries veiled by plate glass: who can resist the lure of the shop? 

  • Gursky© shanghai

    Typology: HotelsSubscription

    7 August, 2017 By Tom Wilkinson

    Anonymous rooms for anonymous and rootless lives, the hotel has long been a giant metaphor for modernity

  • Edward burtynsky three gorges dam1

    Typology: DamsSubscription

    22 June, 2017 By Tom Wilkinson

    The control of nature promised a world transformed for the benefit of humans, but have gigantic dams drowned such hopes?

  • Typologyindex

    Typology: SkyscraperSubscription

    13 May, 2017 By Tom Wilkinson

    Soaring expression of the individualistic spirit of capitalism, logical extrusion of land values or irrational, anti-urban monster?

  • Copy metropolis nblapg84 top small

    Typology: AirportSubscription

    20 April, 2017 By Tom Wilkinson

    Once glamorous gateways to freedom, airports have become zones of consumerist tedium and state terror – but the emotional intensity of the departure gate endures

  • Riba15445index

    Typology: Public SquareSubscription

    2 March, 2017 By Tom Wilkinson

    When human particles collide in the accelerator of the square, the public comes into being – as evanescent as an unstable element

  • Vermeertypology

    Typology: Artist StudioSubscription

    17 February, 2017 By Tom Wilkinson

    The studio reflects the changing status of artists through time, from the humble workspace of art workers to the hallowed ground of masters

  • Typologycremindex

    Typology: CrematoriumSubscription

    14 November, 2016 By Tom Wilkinson

    Our final encounter with architecture increasingly takes place in crematoria but, despite an association with modern bureaucratic society, the type has a long history

  • Typologyindex

    Typology: PubSubscription

    15 September, 2016 By Tom Wilkinson

    Idealised as a comforting refuge and a site of warm conviviality, the public house can also be divisive

  • Typology estate renaudie ivry

    Typology: Housing EstateSubscription

    12 August, 2016 By Tom Wilkinson

    From the green quadrangles of medieval almshouses to towering banlieues, the history of mass housing represents architecture at its most high-minded – which makes its failures all the more painful

  • Lucio Costas plan for Brasilia

    Typology: New townsSubscription

    17 June, 2016 By Tom Wilkinson

    Creating new urban areas from scratch may appear to be a utopian exercise, but more frequently it entrenches existing systems of power

  • Infosys Bengaluru India 2005 Hafeez Contractor2

    Typology: Corporate campus Subscription

    17 May, 2016 By Tom Wilkinson

    With the 1940s came a compulsion to move headquarters from the inner-city sprawl to more tranquil environs out of town. Is the resurgent migration a retreat to a natural idyll or a calculated isolation?

  • Rothko Chapel

    Typology: Multifaith Subscription

    21 April, 2016 By Tom Wilkinson

    Religious belief systems remain powerful and distinct but, alongside the differences, comes a call for greater tolerance and cohesion. Can the worship of different gods take place under one roof?

  • JV Wall Fire Station Gloucester

    Typology: Fire StationsSubscription

    3 February, 2016 By Tom Wilkinson

    The fire station is a unique blend of domesticity and workplace, with the engines brought as close as possible to the living quarters in search of the world’s briefest commute (preferably via pole)

  • Marseille cinema gorska montaut

    Typology: CinemasSubscription

    12 January, 2016 By Tom Wilkinson

    Gloriously kitsch picture palaces engulfed the masses in darkness, while opening virtual space through the screen

  • Ford___s_River_Rouge_plant_Alamy_Index_Old

    Typology: FactoriesSubscription

    24 November, 2015 By Tom Wilkinson

    Commodities flowed from them, along with money for their owners - but the factory also produced new ways of living, of thinking, and of designing

  • Lomonsov_university

    Typology: UniversitiesSubscription

    6 October, 2015 By Tom Wilkinson

    The university is one of the oldest surviving institutions in the western world. It has colonised the globe, its architecture reflecting the prevailing ideology – of which it is the reproductive machinery

  • tomb of Rene de Chalon

    Typology: TombsSubscription

    16 September, 2015 By Tom Wilkinson

    A sealed volume, the tomb has no interior – or if it does, you really don’t want to go there. The exterior, by contrast, is a screen onto which we project our hopes and fears about the other side of life

  • JC Prestwich & Sons, Mounts Baths, Northampton, 1936

    Typology: Swimming PoolsSubscription

    1 August, 2015 By Tom Wilkinson

    Sites of ablution, illicit heavy petting, athleticism, surveillance, leisure, racism and death: pools bring people together stripped of status symbols, but in ways profoundly marked by wider social conditions

  • typology

    Typology: The semi-detached houseSubscription

    6 July, 2015 By Tom Wilkinson

    Symbol of middle-class aspiration, conservatism and compromised individualism, the semi-detached house is England’s modern domestic type par excellence

  • Opera Index

    Typology: Opera HousesSubscription

    25 October, 2013 By Tom Wilkinson

    Since its birth in the Renaissance, opera has been claimed as a reincarnation of community-forming Greek drama, while being used to represent the power of the state − whether feudal, dictatorial or democratic

  • Wunderkammern

    Typology: MuseumsSubscription

    19 December, 2012 By Antonello Marotta

    Museums arrange the world according to the changing way we see it: from Renaissance memory theatres and Baroque cabinets of curiosity, via Enlightenment typologies, to Modernist teleologies and the current vogue for environmental contextualism


    Typology: OfficesSubscription

    24 July, 2012 By Philip Ross

    Conceived in an era of command and control, the traditional fixed and stratified office is evolving to embrace more fluid and intuitive ways of working

  • Patients at St Bartholomew's Hospital, Lodnon in 1929 being wheeled out in their beds

    Typology: HospitalsSubscription

    27 April, 2012 By Sunand Prasad

    Ancient civilisation advocated letting the wider world’s healing power flow through the body and mind, but the industrialisation of healthcare isolated patients from these larger contexts. From city centres to sylvan settings, today’s hospitals must reintegrate the public realm into the healing process


    Typology: SchoolsSubscription

    29 March, 2012 By Christian Kuhn

    In the industrial era, schools developed as highly controlled environments to instil the discipline to thrive in a machine age. Now, to prepare pupils for success in a knowledge economy, the evolving typology is more fluidly conceived to provide flexibility, connectivity, and spaces for social and educational encounters

  • Robert Smirke’s much loved 1857 British Library is one of the most famous examples of the radial plan, which was introduced into library design to enable the efficient monitoring of readers by librarians

    Typology: LibrariesSubscription

    2 November, 2011 By Oriel Prizeman

    In this piece from November 2011, Oriel Prizeman examines six recent public library projects in the first of a major new quarterly series on typology

  • Library_of_Birmingham_from_Centenary_Square_credit_Library_of_Birmingham

    Library of Birmingham by Mecanoo Subscription

    1 November, 2011 By Oriel Prizeman

    Oriel Prizeman examines six recent libraries in the first of a new quarterly series on typology

  • The King Abdulaziz Center for World Culture designed by Snøhetta takes the form of a knot in the desert that holds resources which have fuelled the global economy. A cluster inspired by striped pebbles contains a children's 'discovery zone' and a

    King Abdulaziz Center for World Culture by Snøhetta Subscription

    1 November, 2011 By Oriel Prizeman

    Oriel Prizeman examines six recent libraries in the first of a new quarterly series on typology

  • The National Library of China is the third largest in the world. It is divided into three layers: an earthbound historic base, translucent central portion and  digital roof layer

    National Library of China by KSP Jurgen Engel ArchitektenSubscription

    1 November, 2011 By Oriel Prizeman

    Oriel Prizeman examines six recent libraries in the first of a new quarterly series on typology

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